Self-assessment is a process where students collect information on their own performance and compare it to explicitly stated criteria or standards. Andrade and Valtcheva (2009) argue that self-assessment must be formative: students identifying strengths and weaknesses in their own work for the purpose of enhancing via the revising that work is an integral part of self-assessment.
Andrade, H. and Valtcheva, A. (2009) ‘Promoting learning and achievement through self-assessment’, Theory into Practice 48:1, pp. 12-19.