Peer Assessment

Peer assessment refers to an arrangement where other equal-status learners “consider and specify the level, value, or quality of a product or performance” (Topping 2009: 20). These can include writing and oral assignments, portfolios, tests, etc. Peer assessment can be both formative, where students provide and receive feedback based on the strengths and weaknesses of their work, and summative, where the instructor and students decide collectively on what grade their peer receives (Topping 2009: 20).



Topping, K. (2009) Peer assessment’, Theory into Practice 48:1, pp. 20-27.


Usherwood, S. (2015) Simulations in politics: A guide to best practice, available at: